Reports Archive 2016

December, 2016

Biological Control, 2016, 103: 129-137.
The article is available here to individuals with subscription or at a cost.

Abstract: Cossentine, J., M. Robertson and R. Buitenhuis. Exposure of Drosophila suzukii adults to surfaces treated with Metarhizium brunneum, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea or Lecanicillium lecanii conidia under laboratory conditions resulted in fly infection and dose dependent mortality. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that conidia accumulated on D. suzukii pretarsi after ≤48 h exposure to the dried conidia treated surfaces. Approximately 50% of the flies died post exposure to 1 × 108 conidia of each isolate distributed over approximately 148 cm2 by 7, 10, 12 and 13 days respectively at 25 °C. Temperature had an impact on fungus-induced D. suzukii mortality when tested at 20, 25 and 30 °C, although control mortality was also significant at 30 °C. Fifty percent of the control D. suzukii adults died after being held at 30 °C for 11–13 days. Significantly lower oviposition, recorded as F1 pupae, was recorded from adult D. suzukii exposed to M. brunneum compared to the number of offspring produced by control flies indicating that the fungus had a negative impact on fly fecundity. Evidence of transmission of acquired M. brunneum conidia between sexes was recorded.

December, 2016

Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2016, 20: 120-127.
The article is available here to individuals with subscription or at a cost.

Abstract: McGrath D. and J. Henry. Soil compaction significantly impacts urban tree survival and herbaceous vegetation recruitment along roadsides. Soil samples were collected at two highway tree planting sites in Ontario, Canada. The average soil bulk density in the 0–10 and 20–30 cm range was 1.45 g cm−3 and 1.55 g cm−3, respectively, at Site 1. At site 2, the average soil bulk density in the 0–10 and 20–30 cm range was 1.49 g cm−3 and 1.67 g cm−3, respectively. Six treatments were established on each site to determine the amount of organic amendment required to decrease bulk density and increase tree growth as a measurement of successful tree establishment. Compost was incorporated into the soil at 0%, 10%, 25% and 50% on a volume-to-volume basis at both sites. In 2014 Acer x freemanii Autumn Blaze® ‘Jeffersred’ whips were planted into each treatment bed (Site 1, n = 36 and Site 2 n = 42). Bulk density, porosity, soil pH, EC, tree survival, height, shoot extension and chlorophyll content were measured for the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Incorporation of 25% v/v compost consistently decreased bulk density to below-root restricting thresholds, resulting in improved tree growth. Significant differences were observed in chlorophyll content between organic-amended remediated treatment beds compared to the control; chlorophyll content was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the 25% and 50% treatments throughout the 2015 growing season at both sites. Incorporation of compost at 10% and 25% v/v effectively reduced soil bulk density, leading to increased growth and reduced tree stress at both sites. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding the baseline of soil physical structure in prescribing remediation strategies, including organic amendments, in urban tree planting

Rapport inaugural de Vineland intitulé Impact
November, 2016

Incluant

  • La poire Cold SnapTM - Le fruit préféré de l'hiverMC
  • Des options respectueuses de l'environnement pour contrôler les insectes nuisibles qui s'attaquent aux fleurs
  • L'industrie canadienne de la nouvelle variété de pommes SmittenTM est prometteuse
  • Rouge, vin rouge : Vineland met au point une technologie appassimento sophistiquée pour répondre aux besoins des vignerons et aux goûts des consommateurs
  • Les retombés liées au raisin PixieTM, toutes sauf miniatures
Vineland's inaugural Impact Report
November, 2016

Features

  • Cold SnapTM pear - Winter's Favourite FruitTM
  • Environmentally friendly options to control destructive flower pest
  • Canadian apple industry SmittenTM with new, promising variety
  • Red, red wine: Vineland develops sophisticated Appassimento technology to meet winemaker's needs and consumer preferences
  • PixieTM grape's impact anything but miniature
  • New method for storing Sovereign Coronation grapes cuts costs, increases income for growers
September, 2016

Insects, 2016, 7(4), 48.
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Abstract: Buitenhuis R., M. Brownbridge, A. Brommit, T. Saito and G. Murphy. (1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers’ options to control this pest; (2) This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae) and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips) to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa) were determined; (3) Mineral oil (0.1% v/v) and insecticidal soap (0.5%) + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L) were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4) Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

Cider research and innovation strategy
June, 2016

Features

  • State of the industry
  • Key challenges and opportunities
  • Projected demand
  • What does success look like?
  • How can research and innovation drive growth in the cider industry?
Ontario horticulture research priority report 2016
May, 2016

Features

  • Edible horticulture
  • Ornamental horticulture
Growing Forward 2 annual report 2015-2016
April, 2016

Features

  • Performance measures 2015-16
  • Partnerships and collaboration
  • Applied research and innovation activities
  • Knowledge translation and transfer, outreach and communications activities
  • Commercialization
Achieving what's possible for Canada's agri-food sector
February, 2016

The Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute presents Achieving What's Possible for Canada's Agri-Food Sector, part 3, final report of The Forum on Canada's Agri-Food Future 2015.

January, 2016

Biological Control, January 2016, 92(92-100).
Click here to view the article

Abstract
Western flower thrips (WFT) generally pupate in the soil. This laboratory study was designed to examine the compatibility of soil-dwelling predators with microbial biocontrol agents and assess their combined efficacy against pupating WFT, with a view to their integrated use. The following commercially available biocontrol agents were evaluated: a rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz); predatory mites, Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) and Gaeolaelaps gillespiei Beaulieu; entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (now classified as Metarhizium brunneum) strain F52 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) GHA strain; and the nematode, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev). Compatibility studies demonstrated mortality caused by the microbial agents ranging from 2.93% to 60.95% against the predators tested. In container studies, efficacy against WFT was significantly improved when the predators and fungi were combined, achieving >90% thrips mortality, compared to the treatments in which they were used separately. This was not observed with nematodes.